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    Auditor Realignments Accompanying Implementation of SOX 404...
    research summary posted June 22, 2013 by Jennifer M Mueller-Phillips, last edited June 22, 2013, tagged 01.0 Standard Setting, 01.04 Impact of 404, 01.05 Impact of SOX, 07.0 Internal Control, 07.03 Reporting Material Weaknesses, 07.05 Impact of 404 on Fees and Financial Reporting Quality 
    Auditor Realignments Accompanying Implementation of SOX 404 ICFR Reporting Requirements
    Practical Implications:

    The results of this study are important for showing the impact of SOX requirements on the audit environment.  The evidence suggests that ICFR opinions provide clients with information to assess the effectiveness of auditors.  After adverse internal control opinions, clients dismiss auditors in order to obtain higher quality audits, measured by switches to Big 4 and industry specialist auditors.  However, only industry specialist auditors are associated with remediation of adverse reports. 


    Ettredge, M., J. Heintz, C. Li, and S. Scholz. 2011. Auditor realignments accompanying implementation of SOX 404 ICFR reporting requirements. Accounting Horizons 25 (1): 17-39.

    auditor realignments; dismissals; internal control; SOX Section 404; remediation
    Purpose of the Study:

    This study was motivated by the increased frequency of client dismissals of auditors since the implementation of SOX in 2002.  The added requirement that auditors opine on the client’s internal control over financial reporting (ICFR) brought concern among financial statement users that clients would seek more compliant auditors decreasing the quality of the audit.  This paper studies the impact of adverse auditors’ opinions on clients’ internal controls to determine whether:

    • Clients dismiss auditors after receiving an adverse SOX 404 ICFR opinion.
    • Clients dismiss auditors to improve financial reporting by obtaining a higher-quality auditor.
    • Dismissals and hiring a new auditor are associated with subsequent improved ICFR opinions.
    Design/Method/ Approach:

    The authors study accelerated filers from November 2004 through December 2007 and obtain data on ICFR opinions, auditor dismissals, and auditor switches.  Higher audit quality is measured as changes to Big 4 and industry specialist auditors. 

    • Companies receiving adverse ICFR opinions are more likely to dismiss their auditor in the subsequent year.
    • Companies that dismiss their auditor after an adverse ICFR opinion are more likely to hire Big 4 and industry specialist auditors.
    • Remediation of adverse reports is only associated with clients that switch to an industry specialist auditor.
    Standard Setting, Internal Control
    Impact of 404, Impact of SOX, Impact of 404 on Fees and Financial Reporting Quality

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