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    Auditor Communications with the Audit Committee and the...
    research summary posted March 31, 2016 by Jennifer M Mueller-Phillips, tagged 13.0 Governance, 13.02 Board/Financial Experts, 13.05 Board/Audit Committee Oversight 
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    Title:
    Auditor Communications with the Audit Committee and the Board of Directors: Policy Recommendations and Opportunities for Future Research.
    Practical Implications:

    The review identifies insights for practice and opportunities for research on communication issues between the auditor, the audit committee, and the board. The authors strongly believe that the academic and the practice communities must have a continual dialogue so that standards reflect research, and research is directed to issues with the greatest potential to positively affect public policy. These implications should interest the PCAOB, the SEC, other standard-setters, and regulators that focus on issues related to corporate governance and financial reporting quality.

    Citation:

    Cohen, J., L. M. Gaynor, G. Krishnamoorthy, and A. M. Wright. 2007. Auditor Communications with the Audit Committee and the Board of Directors: Policy Recommendations and Opportunities for Future Research. Accounting Horizons 21 (2): 165-187.

    Keywords:
    board of directors, communication between audit committees and external auditors, corporate governance, financial reporting quality, internal control reports
    Purpose of the Study:

    In 2004 the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) began considering a standard to improve guidance on the communication process between external auditors and audit committees. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 expands and emphasizes the role of audit committees in ensuring the quality of reported financial results. This increased responsibility requires improved and expanded dialogue between audit committees and external auditors.

    In this paper, the authors review the extant academic literature to address relevant issues pertaining to communications between external auditors and audit committees on matters relevant to the integrity of the financial reporting process as well as to the PCAOB-developed discussion questions (DQs). Specifically, they examine literature regarding communications pertaining to overall financial reporting quality, internal controls, the external auditor’s job performance, the form of communications (oral or written), and communications pertaining to the Management’s Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) section of the annual report. For each major area, they discuss the implications of the academic research for standard-setters and identify future research opportunities for the academic community.  

    Design/Method/ Approach:

    The literature review primarily features research published in academic accounting and auditing journals. In an effort to capture the latest research availableas well as research on emerging topics, such as many of those precipitated by the passage of SOXthe authors also include working papers submitted to major archiving services. The authors searched electronic databases such as Ingenta, ABI/Inform, and American Accounting Association (AAA) Electronic Publications using keywords or combinations of keywords related to the various topics and subtopics discussed in this paper. They also searched Social Science Research Network (SSRN) and scholar.google.com to identify relevant working papers.

    Findings:
    • Financial Reporting Quality:
      • Frequent communications with a well-informed, financially sophisticated audit committee and communications among the audit committee, the auditor, and the full board improve financial reporting quality.
    • Internal Controls:
      • The nature and the extent of communications between the auditor and the audit committee should be sensitive to whether a control weakness or deficiency relates to entity level controls or account-level controls, given the differentially serious implications of these two types of weaknesses.
      • Firm-specific factors (e.g., financial distress, company size) should influence communications and may require the auditor to report directly with the board on matters related to internal control.
      • The audit committee and the external auditor should discuss the quality of the internal audit function and the extent to which the external auditor is able to rely on the work performed by internal audit.
      • The audit committee should discuss with external auditors their policy to protect whistle-blowers.
    • External Auditor Performance:
      • It it is important for the auditor to communicate to the audit committee all relationships with the client, the fees and nature of all services provided, and the extent to which any nonaudit services are beneficial to the audit.
      • The auditor should report all issues and proposed adjustments to the audit committee and the process used for resolving contentious issues.
      • The auditor should also report to the board its evaluation of the quality, effectiveness, and authority of the audit committee in discharging its responsibilities.
    • Other Issues:
      • A review of the literature suggests that the MD&A should be more emphasized in the discussions between the audit committee and the auditors.
    Category:
    Governance
    Sub-category:
    Board/Audit Committee Oversight, Board/Financial Experts