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    Attention to Evidence of Aggressive Financial Reporting and...
    research summary posted May 7, 2012 by The Auditing Section, last edited May 25, 2012, tagged 06.0 Risk and Risk Management, Including Fraud Risk, 06.01 Fraud Risk Assessment, 08.0 Auditing Procedures – Nature, Timing and Extent, 08.04 Auditors’ Professional Skepticism, 09.0 Auditor Judgment, 09.10 Prior Dispositions/Biases/Auditor state of mind 
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    Title:
    Attention to Evidence of Aggressive Financial Reporting and Intentional Misstatement Judgments: Effects of Experience and Trust
    Practical Implications:

    The results of this study are important for audit firms to consider when making audit personnel assignments in order to take advantage of individual traits and experiences.  Audit firms may benefit from audit team structures that include members with varying levels of trust and varying levels of prior fraud experience.  Diversifying audit team composition may improve fraud detection while maintaining audit efficiency. 

    Citation:

    Rose, J.M. 2007. Attention to evidence of aggressive financial reporting and intentional misstatement judgments: Effects of experience and trust. Behavioral Research in Accounting 19(1): 215-229.

    Keywords:
    aggressive reporting; experience; fraud; skepticism; trust
    Purpose of the Study:

    Auditors face increased pressure to detect and prevent fraud and increased responsibilities to maintain professional skepticism as a result of SAS No. 99.  Yet their ability to do so may be constrained by their individual traits or experiences.  Previous research has not sufficiently addressed auditors’ ability to detect potentially fraudulent reporting or auditors’ judgment concerning misstatements and has not evaluated auditor characteristics that can influence attention to evidence of aggressive reporting. 
    This paper investigates the following factors:  

    • Whether professional skepticism increases auditors’ attention to evidence of aggressive reporting. 
    • Whether dispositional trust affects auditor’s critical evaluation of audit evidence.  Dispositional trust is a personality trait which affects professional behavior by influencing the degree to which an individual believes that people are typically trustworthy or that they will personally benefit by trusting others.
    • Whether fraud-specific audit experience results in the development of knowledge structures that are useful for the detection of potentially fraudulent and aggressive reporting practices. 
    Design/Method/ Approach:

    The authors collected their evidence using a simulated task completed by practicing auditors from Big 4 and national accounting firms with an average of 3.6 years of experience.  Participants were given background information along with 45 pieces of audit evidence for a hypothetical audit client, and told that they were performing workpaper reviews for the client. Then, participants were asked to perform a surprise free recall of the information. Finally, participants were asked to make a judgment on the likelihood that the client’s financial statements were intentionally misstated.  Participants were assigned to either a higher or lower level of client-related skepticism and aggressive or non aggressive individual audit evidence items.

    Findings:
    • The authors find that increased skepticism is associated with increased attention to aggressive reporting, and as a result, increased belief that intentional misstatement has occurred.
    • Less trusting auditors appear to pay more attention to evidence of aggressive reporting than do more trusting auditors.  
    • The authors find that prior fraud-specific experience positively influences auditor’s judgments of intentional misstatement.  Prior fraud experience may allow auditors to develop fraud-based explanations for aggressive reporting and develop knowledge structures that include potential indicators of fraud. 
    Category:
    Risk & Risk Management - Including Fraud Risk, Auditing Procedures - Nature - Timing and Extent, Auditor Judgment
    Sub-category:
    Fraud Risk Assessment, Auditors’ Professional Skepticism, Prior Dispositions/Biases/Auditor state of mind
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