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  • Robert E Jensen

    Bloomberg:  Why They Did It: Madoff and Enron’s Fastow Explain the Biggest Frauds in U.S. History ---
    http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-08-29/why-they-did-it-madoff-and-enron-s-fastow-explain-the-biggest-frauds-in-u-s-history?cmpid=BBD082916_BIZ
    Jensen Comment
    When con artists explain why they committed fraud can you believe them?
    Con artists are so convincing even when they are lying?

    PS
    Some public sector frauds were bigger than these private sector frauds
    And some bigger frauds are joint public and private sector frauds (think Pentagon spending)

    Bob Jensen's threads on Fastow and Enron ---
    http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/FraudEnron.htm
    By the way Andy Fastow was only one of the many fraudsters among Enron's executives and not the only one to go to prison

    Bob Jensen's threads on Madoff ---
    http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/FraudRottenPart2.htm#Ponzi

  • Robert E Jensen

    The Parable of the Talents
    SSRN, May 31, 2016
    http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2787452

    Author

    Stephen M. Bainbridge University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law

    Abstract

    On its surface, Jesus’ Parable of the Talents is a simple story with four key plot elements: (1) A master is leaving on a long trip and entrusts substantial assets to three servants to manage during his absence. (2) Two of the servants invested the assets profitably, earning substantial returns, but a third servant — frightened of his master’s reputation as a hard taskmaster — put the money away for safekeeping and failed even to earn interest on it. (3) The master returns and demands an accounting from the servants. (4) The two servants who invested wisely were rewarded, but the servant who failed to do so is punished.

    Neither the master nor any of the servants make any appeal to legal standards, but it seems improbable that there was no background set of rules against which the story plays out. To the legal mind, the Parable thus raises some interesting questions: What was the relationship between the master and the servant? What were the servants’ duties? How do the likely answers to those questions map to modern relations, such as those of principal and agent? Curiously, however, there are almost no detailed analyses of these questions in Anglo-American legal scholarship.

    This project seeks to fill that gap.

  • Robert E Jensen

    The Parable of the Talents
    SSRN, May 31, 2016
    http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2787452

    Author

    Stephen M. Bainbridge University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law

    Abstract

    On its surface, Jesus’ Parable of the Talents is a simple story with four key plot elements: (1) A master is leaving on a long trip and entrusts substantial assets to three servants to manage during his absence. (2) Two of the servants invested the assets profitably, earning substantial returns, but a third servant — frightened of his master’s reputation as a hard taskmaster — put the money away for safekeeping and failed even to earn interest on it. (3) The master returns and demands an accounting from the servants. (4) The two servants who invested wisely were rewarded, but the servant who failed to do so is punished.

    Neither the master nor any of the servants make any appeal to legal standards, but it seems improbable that there was no background set of rules against which the story plays out. To the legal mind, the Parable thus raises some interesting questions: What was the relationship between the master and the servant? What were the servants’ duties? How do the likely answers to those questions map to modern relations, such as those of principal and agent? Curiously, however, there are almost no detailed analyses of these questions in Anglo-American legal scholarship.

    This project seeks to fill that gap.

  • Robert E Jensen

    Critical Thinking --- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critical_thinking

    Cynicism --- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynic

    Critical Thinking versus Cynicism
    "Against Self-Criticism: Adam Phillips on How Our Internal Critics Enslave Us, the Stockholm Syndrome of the Superego, and the Power of Multiple Interpretations," by Maria Popova, Brain Pickings, May 23, 2016 ---
    https://www.brainpickings.org/2016/05/23/against-self-criticism-adam-phillips-unforbidden-pleasures/?mc_cid=5e19106c81&mc_eid=4d2bd13843

    I have thought and continued to think a great deal about the relationship between critical thinking and cynicism — what is the tipping point past which critical thinking, that centerpiece of reason so vital to human progress and intellectual life, stops mobilizing our constructive impulses and topples over into the destructiveness of impotent complaint and embittered resignation, begetting cynicism? In giving a commencement address on the subject, I found myself contemplating anew this fine but firm line between critical thinking and cynical complaint. To cross it is to exile ourselves from the land of active reason and enter a limbo of resigned inaction.

    But cross it we do, perhaps nowhere more readily than in our capacity for merciless self-criticism. We tend to go far beyond the self-corrective lucidity necessary for improving our shortcomings, instead berating and belittling ourselves for our foibles with a special kind of masochism.

    The undergirding psychology of that impulse is what the English psychoanalytical writer Adam Phillips explores in his magnificent essay “Against Self-Criticism”, found in his altogether terrific collection Unforbidden Pleasures (public library).

    Continued in article

    • "Critical Thinking:  Why It's So Hard to Teach," by Daniel T. Willingham ---
      http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american_educator/issues/summer07/Crit_Thinking.pdf

      Also see Simorleon Sense --- http://www.simoleonsense.com/critical-thinking-why-is-it-so-hard-to-teach/

      “Critical thinking is not a set of skills that can be deployed at any time, in any context. It is a type of thought that even 3-year-olds can engage in—and even trained scientists can fail in.”

      “Knowing that one should think critically is not the same as being able to do so. That requires domain knowledge and practice.”

      So,  Why Is Thinking Critically So Hard?
      Educators have long noted that school attendance and even academic success are no guarantee that a student will graduate an effective thinker in all situations. There is an odd tendency for rigorous thinking to cling to particular examples or types of problems. Thus, a student may have learned to estimate the answer to a math problem before beginning calculations as a way of checking the accuracy of his answer, but in the chemistry lab, the same student calculates the components of a compound without noticing that his estimates sum to more than 100 percent. And a student who has learned to thoughtfully discuss the causes of the American Revolution from both the British and American perspectives doesn’t even think to question how the Germans viewed World War II. Why are students able to think critically in one situation, but not in another? The brief answer is: Thought processes are intertwined with what is being thought about. Let’s explore this in depth by looking at a particular kind of critical thinking that has been studied extensively: problem solving.

      Imagine a seventh-grade math class immersed in word problems. How is it that students will be able to answer one problem, but not the next, even though mathematically both word problems are the same, that is, they rely on the same mathematical knowledge? Typically, the students are focusing on the scenario that the word problem describes (its surface structure) instead of on the mathematics required to solve it (its deep structure). So even though students have been taught how to solve a particular type of word problem, when the teacher or textbook changes the scenario, students still struggle to apply the solution because they don’t recognize that the problems are mathematically the same.

      Thinking Tends to Focus on a Problem’s “Surface Structure”
      To understand why the surface structure of a problem is so distracting and, as a result, why it’s so hard to apply familiar solutions to problems that appear new, let’s first consider how you understand what’s being asked when you are given a problem. Anything you hear or read is automatically interpreted in light of what you already know about similar subjects. For example, suppose you read these two sentences: “After years of pressure from the film and television industry, the President has filed a formal complaint with China over what U.S. firms say is copyright infringement. These firms assert that the Chinese government sets stringent trade restrictions for U.S. entertainment products, even as it turns a blind eye to Chinese companies that copy American movies and television shows and sell them on the black market.”

      With Deep Knowledge, Thinking Can Penetrate Beyond Surface Structure
      If knowledge of how to solve a problem never transferred to problems with new surface structures, schooling would be inefficient or even futile—but of course, such transfer does occur. When and why is complex,5 but two factors are especially relevant for educators: familiarity with a problem’s deep structure and the knowledge that one should look for a deep structure. I’ll address each in turn. When one is very familiar with a problem’s deep-structure, knowledge about how to solve it transfers well. That familiarity can come from long-term, repeated experience with one problem, or with various manifestations of one type of problem (i.e., many problems that have different surface structures, but the same deep structure). After repeated exposure to either or both, the subject simply perceives the deep structure as part of the problem description.

    Bob Jensen's threads on critical thinking ---
    http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/HigherEdControversies.htm#CriticalThinking

  • Robert E Jensen

    Helpers for Student Loan Forgiveness and Cancellation ---
    https://www.moneygeek.com/education/college/resources/student-loan-forgiveness-cancellation/

    Jensen Comment
    If you do not qualify for student loan forgiveness you should probably compare your current annual loan payments with payments if you privately refinance at the present low interest rates. However, you may lose some protections and options in doing so. Be careful about refinancing that sounds too good to be true. You might be able to refinance with your parents in a win-win situation if your parents consider you a good investment risk and you pay a higher interest rate than their safe investment alternatives. Read that as meaning you have a good job in a good profession and are not an unemployed aspiring artist or writer or getting a Ph.D. in a discipline where Ph.D. graduates are a dime a dozen.

    Whether or not you pay your student loan off aggressively by making above the minimum amounts due each year depends much upon what you would otherwise do with the money. Savings rates are so low that you are probably better off paying the loan off aggressively relative to saving. Risky investments are not the same as gambling, but you should probably be very cautious with putting money into risky investments like tech stocks until you have your student loans paid off. Also remember that there are transactions costs for buying and selling land, houses, and stocks. Short-term ownership (called flipping) of a house/condo is risky unless the buying deal was very good in a very hot housing market such as near a college or medical center. It helps in house flipping markets if you do the fixing up of a house yourself.

    My advice is to avoid buying new cars until your loan is paid off, although you may have to invest in a quality pre-owned car or lease modest cars at low rates. Think public transportation if you live in an urban area that has good public transportation. You can always rent an occasional car if needed for a trip.

    Bob Jensen's personal finance helpers are at
    http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/Bookbob1.htm#InvestmentHelpers

  • Robert E Jensen

    Rubrics in Academia --- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubric_(academic)

    "Assessing, Without Tests," by Paul Fain, Inside Higher Ed, February 17, 2016 ---
    https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/02/17/survey-finds-increased-use-learning-outcomes-measures-decline-standardized-tests?utm_source=Inside+Higher+Ed&utm_campaign=60a80c3a41-DNU20160217&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_1fcbc04421-60a80c3a41-197565045

    Jensen Comment
    Testing becomes more effective for grading and licensing purposes as class sizes increase. It's less effective when hands on experience is a larger part of competency evaluation. For example, in the final stages of competency evaluation in neurosurgery testing becomes less important than expert evaluation of surgeries being performed in operating rooms. I want my brain surgeon to be much more than a good test taker. Testing is more cost effective when assigning academic credit for a MOOC mathematics course taken by over 5,000 students.

    One thing to keep in mind is that testing serves a much larger purpose than grading the amount of learning. Testing is a huge motivator as evidenced by how students work so much harder to learn just prior to being tested.

    Some types of testing are also great integrators of multiple facets of a course. This is one justification of having comprehensive final examinations.

    Testing also can overcome racial, ethnic, and cultural biases. This is the justification, for example, for having licensing examinations like CPA exam examinations, BAR examinations, nursing examinations, etc. be color blind in terms of  race, ethnic, and cultural bias. This is also one of the justifications (good or bad) of taking grading out of the jurisdiction of teachers. Competency examinations also serve a purpose of giving credit for learning no matter of how or where the subject matter is learned. Years ago people could take final examinations at the University of Chicago without ever having attended classes in a course ---
    http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/assess.htm#ConceptKnowledge

    Bob Jensen's threads on assessment ---
    http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/assess.htm

     

    "Using Rubrics to Assess Accounting Learning Goal Achievement," by Thomas F. Schaefer and Jennifer Sustersic Stevens, Issues in Accounting Education, Volume 31, Issue 1 (February 2016) ---
    http://aaajournals.org/doi/full/10.2308/iace-51261
    Free only to subscribers (including users of campus libraries)

    This paper illustrates the development and use of rubrics to improve the learning assessment process and enhance the teaching-learning relationship. We highlight the multidimensional benefits of rubrics as valuable tools for student assessment (grading), course assessment (at the instructor level), and program assessment (at the administrator/curriculum committee/accreditation level). Moreover, rubrics may improve qualitative feedback on learning to students and instructors. Development of effective rubrics is framed in terms of learning goals, measurable learning outcomes, choice of assessment vehicle/assignment, and use of data collected from rubrics for feedback and/or improvement. The paper then offers an example set of rubrics designed to assess student achievement of three learning goals common to many undergraduate accounting programs: accounting measurement, research, and critical thinking. This paper may prove useful for instructors looking to use rubrics to improve the teaching-learning process and concurrently evaluate learning goal achievement for course or program assessment. As an auxiliary benefit, the use of scoring rubrics may simplify grading, as well as data collection in documenting assurance of learning for accreditation purposes.

    In higher-education institutions, faculty members often are tasked with measuring individual student performance, assuring their students meet established course learning goals, as well as evaluating overall student progress toward a particular program's learning goals. However, instructors often struggle with assessing student learning in an effective and efficient manner. Scoring rubrics represent a valuable tool to enhance the teaching-learning process by providing a systematic approach to measuring learning outcomes, yet very few studies in the accounting literature highlight the benefits of using rubrics or provide guidance in their application.1

    Rubrics—detailed lists of competencies for designated learning outcomes accompanied by levels of performance criteria—can guide assessments at both the student and course level, as well as contribute to a program-level assessment. Moreover, rubrics enhance feedback to students and promote learning (Brookhart 2013; Stevens and Levi 2013). The purpose of this paper is to offer guidance on the development and use of scoring rubrics for classroom and assessment purposes. The paper also provides an example set of scoring rubrics designed to assess student achievement for accounting measurement, research, and critical thinking learning goals.

    Rubrics enrich the teaching-learning process at the student level by enabling a discussion of quality for complex work products. Unlike a traditional assessment system in which the instructor judges quality and assigns a grade, a rubric conveys descriptions of quality and connects how a student's performance falls within those guidelines (Brookhart 2013). This facilitates a more objective, productive conversation regarding a student's progress compared to learning expectations and allows the student to identify his or her own strengths and weaknesses (Suskie 2010). If shared with students when distributing the assignment, then scoring rubrics may also help communicate performance expectations and lead to improved student submissions (McTighe and O'Connor 2005). Moreover, scoring rubrics can help standardize the grading process and provide more reliable, fair, and valid feedback to instructors and students (McTighe and Ferrara 1994).

    At the course level, instructors should consider their educational program's learning goals when developing student assignments. A carefully designed scoring rubric may complement this process by helping the instructor to clarify the purpose of the assignment, as well as to focus on its most important learning objectives (Ammons and Mills 2005). Feedback from the process may persuade instructors to modify instruction, course content, or assignments to improve teaching and enrich learning within the course. In addition, rubrics may facilitate coordination with other course instructors or teaching assistants by creating a more objective, consistent guide for scoring student submissions (Stevens and Levi 2013).

    At the program level, accounting undergraduate and graduate programs routinely assess and document progress toward the achievement of established educational learning goals. In addition, accrediting agencies typically require evidence of student achievement for institution-specific learning goals (Kimmell, Marquette, and Olsen 1998; Stivers, Campbell, and Hermanson 2000; J. Shaftel and T. Shaftel 2007). The development of scoring rubrics may prove useful in constructing assignments to assess specific program learning goals, evaluating progress in meeting learning goals, and facilitating ease of data collection for accreditation or other program evaluations. Scoring rubrics may also help decrease subjectivity in determining when assessments fail to provide evidence of sufficient student learning, so that curricular efforts can be targeted to remedy the deficiency.

    Continued in article

    Bob Jensen's threads on assessment ---
    http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/Assess.htm

     

  • Robert E Jensen

    UNC's Technology Commons and Resources
    "UNC Gives Professors a Way to Rate Classroom Technologies Across Campuses," by Corinne Ruff, Chronicle of Higher Education, February 19, 2016 ---
    http://chronicle.com/article/UNC-Gives-Professors-a-Way-to/235367?cid=at&utm_source=at&utm_medium=en&elqTrackId=b0cfb869eb844215a7f879a683640f31&elq=1a51e43df2934d40b7a99b53117d85a6&elqaid=7957&elqat=1&elqCampaignId=2473 

    The University of North Carolina system has built a Yelp-like review site for teaching tools, where it is asking professors to review and comment on how useful various digital services were in their classrooms.

    Though the process will not be quite as simple as awarding five stars, Matthew Z. Rascoff, the system vice president for technology-based learning and innovation who is leading the project, said professors would use a research-based rubric to describe which tools had helped increase student learning and which aren’t worth the time or money. Technology vendors will also be able to use the site to view feedback on products.

    The online platform, known as the UNC Learning Technology Commons, opened to vendor applications last week and will end its first round of applications in mid-March. After a rolling review of the first cycle of applications within the next few weeks, faculty members on the university’s 17 campuses will have access to the commons. There they will be able to virtually discuss, review, and share ideas on which instructional technologies work and how educators in diverse disciplines can use tools to engage students in the classroom.

    Continued in article

    Bob Jensen's threads on Tools and Tricks of the Trade ---
    http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/000aaa/thetools.htm

    Bob Jensen's threads on education technologies ---
    http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/000aaa/0000start.htm

  • Robert E Jensen

    From the CPA Newsletter on November 19, 2015

    US ranks 14th in world for financial literacy
    http://www.forbes.com/forbes/welcome/
    The US ranked 14th in a survey of global financial literacy that was conducted in more than 140 countries. The researchers asked multiple-choice questions about topics such as interest and diversification. Only 57% of Americans received a passing grade. Find the AICPA's financial education resources at 360financialliteracy.org. Forbes (11/18)

    Bob Jensen's personal finance helpers ---
    http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/bookbob1.htm#InvestmentHelpers

  • Robert E Jensen
  • Robert E Jensen

    From the CFO Journal's Morning Ledger on November 13, 2015

    Bob Jensen's threads on sustainability accounting ---
    http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/Theory01.htm#ResearchVersusProfession

  • Robert E Jensen

    2014: The Year in Interactive Storytelling, Graphics, and Multimedia --- http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/12/29/us/year-in-interactive-storytelling.html

    Bob Jensen's threads on tools and tricks of the trade ---
    http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/000aaa/thetools.htm

  • Robert E Jensen

    Sustainability Accounting --- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainability_accounting  

    From the CFO Journal's Morning Ledger on November 5, 2015

    Stock exchange group sets guidelines for sustainability disclosures
    http://blogs.wsj.com/cfo/2015/11/04/stock-exchange-group-sets-guidelines-for-sustainability-disclosures/?mod=djemCFO_h

    A group of the world’s largest stock exchanges, on Wednesday, released guidelines for the types of environmental, social, and governance-related metrics it says are important for companies to release to investors, Emily Chasan reports. The guidelines could push stock exchanges to require listed companies to report on more than 30 metrics, such as energy consumption, employee turnover, human rights, and gender and board diversity, though exchanges can voluntarily choose to adopt some, if any, of these standards.

     "Update on Social Accounting - Sustainability Reporting," by Jim Martin, MAAW's Blog, May 1, 2015 ---
    http://maaw.blogspot.com/2015/05/update-on-social-accounting.html

    Bob Jensen's threads on sustainability accounting ---
    http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/theory01.htm#ResearchVersusProfession

  • Robert E Jensen

    This is the research you should do before picking a credit card ---
    http://www.businessinsider.com/sc/pick-the-right-credit-card-2015-8 

    The Upshot: Is It Better to Rent or Buy? (real estate calculator) ---  http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/upshot/buy-rent-calculator.html
    Jensen Comment
    My general advice for new faculty is not to buy a home until tenure is achieved except in hot markets where fast turnover profits are probable provided too much is paid initially. After tenure achievement the above calculator can be helpful.

    My priors were to invest as much as possible in long-term ownership of a house and the least possible in the long-term ownership of a very reliable car. 

    However, be careful where you buy real estate. Up in the White Mountains I advise mountain or lake views even though New Hampshire has a view tax.  There really aren't any gated neighborhoods up here, and nothing would be gained by having gated neighborhoods. In San Antonio I would not put big money into a house that's not in a gated neighborhood. Even if you're opposed philosophically to that concept, the fact is that expensive homes do not sell very well in San Antonio unless they are in gated neighborhoods with armed guards at the gates. I would have had much more capital gain on my big San Antonio house if it had been in a gated neighborhood. Sigh!

     

    The Upshot:  Is It better to Lease or Buy a Car? --- http://money.howstuffworks.com/business/getting-a-job/buy-vs-lease-car.htm
    Jensen Comment
    Leasing became much more attractive when the Federal Reserve drove commercial interest rates toward zero. But that does not mean "more attractive" than buying in all instances. Much depends on the amount you drive and the terms of the lease in the context of  the amount you drive. It also depends a lot upon your willingness to drive older cars. When I worked in San Antonio where newish cars are stolen in unbelievable numbers daily my wife's car was a newish tiny Honda Civic, and I drove a very reliable battered up ancient Ford station wagon that had a newish engine and transmission under the hood. This ghetto-like car looked so bad that nobody would think of stealing it and driving it across the border to Mexico.

    In general, even in retirement, my wife and I do not mind driving well-maintained older cars. Our main car in the White Mountains (where car theft would be headline news) is a very reliable Subaru Forrester that we will probably drive until it is at least 20 years old (it's now five years old) or has over 100,000 miles.  The Subaru will probably be the last car we ever own. After that its car leasing for us unless we're in a nursing home. I also keep an unreliable old Jeep Cherokee in the barn that's used mostly for hauling brush to the dump. That will be in our barn on the day I die.

    My point is that leasing would probably not be the best choice for us until we're very old. However, leasing is the best choice for most of our children except for one son who puts a lot of miles on a car commuting a long distance to work in California.

  • Robert E Jensen

    What good is the study of ethics if it doesn't make us more ethical? It breaks down strictures and transports us to wild, unpredictable places.
    "Cheeseburger Ethics," by Eric Schwitzgebel, AEON, 2015 ---
    http://aeon.co/magazine/philosophy/how-often-do-ethics-professors-call-their-mothers/

    . . .

    What’s more, abstract doctrines lack specific content if they aren’t tacked down in a range of concrete examples. Consider the doctrine ‘treat everyone as moral equals who are worthy of respect’. What counts as adhering to this norm, and what constitutes a violation of it? Only when we understand how norms play out across examples do we really understand them. Living our norms, or trying to live them, forces a maximally concrete confrontation with examples. Does your ethical vision really require that you free the slaves on which your lifestyle crucially depends? Does it require giving away your salary and never again enjoying an expensive dessert? Does it require drinking the hemlock if your fellow citizens unjustly demand that you do so?

    Few professional ethicists really are cheeseburger ethicists, I think, when they stop to consider it. We do want our ethical reflections to improve us morally, a little bit. But here’s the catch: we aim only to become a little morally better. We cut ourselves slack when we look at others around us. We grade ourselves on a curve and aim for B+ rather than A. And at the same time, we excel at rationalisation and excuse-making – maybe more so, the more ethical theories we have ready to hand. So we end, on average, about where we began, behaving more or less the same as others of our social group.

    Continued in article

     

  • Robert E Jensen

    Take a look at what exactly student athletes will learn in the new personal finance course at Ole Miss

    Jensen Comment
    Given that ignorance of personal finance is the greatest stress in families and the biggest reason for divorce I think personal finance should be part of the common core in all colleges and universities.

    "Teach Financial Literacy," by Steven Bahls, Chronicle of Higher Education, June 13, 2011 ---
    http://www.insidehighered.com/views/2011/06/13/essay_on_responsibility_of_colleges_to_teach_financial_literacy

    Most importantly take a look at some of the free training and education sites linked at
    http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/Bookbob1.htm#InvestmentHelpers

    Wharton Professor Olivia Mitchell on Worldwide Financial Literacy
    http://www.ssga.com/definedcontribution/docs/Olivia_Mitchell_GlobalFinancialLiteracy_SSgADC_The Participant02.pdf
    Thank you Jim Mahar for the heads up.

    Education: Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City ---  http://www.kansascityfed.org/education/
    Note the Financial Fables section --- http://www.kansascityfed.org/education/fables/index.cfm

    Helpers in planning for retirement --- http://www.plan-for-retirement.com/

    Personal Financial Helpers:  From the Virginia Society of CPAs --- http://www.vscpa.com/Financial_Fitness/

    Video:  Investing for Inflation ---
    http://www.simoleonsense.com/janet-tavakoli-author-of-dear-mr-buffett-on-investing-for-inflation/

    What five classic Disney movies can teach us about personal finance ---
    http://www.csmonitor.com/Business/Saving-Money/2014/0904/What-five-classic-Disney-movies-can-teach-us-about-personal-finance

    U.S. Social Security Retirement Benefit Calculators --- http://www.socialsecurity.gov/estimator/

    Continued at http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/Bookbob1.htm#InvestmentHelpers

    The following article is not specific enough for me to pass judgment on the content, but it has many of the correct headings. Because I am an accountant I would probably lean more toward some of the more technical aspects of personal finance such as income budgeting and grasp of the time value of money (which sadly is not what it used to be with today's miserable savings interest rates).

    For example, I think college graduates should be able to make technical comparisons about whether to buy or lease a car and to verify the annual percentage rate of a loan contract. When is it a good or bad idea to buy a service contract? Why is it a terrible idea to only make what your credit card company calls the minimum payment? When should you buy used or refurbished items on Amazon versus new items? It's a good idea to look for the used options, but it's not always a good idea to order a used item like a computer.

    Many of my colleagues would probably accuse me of being too technical in my vision of a personal finance class. I'm open to debate on this.

    When is it advisable to become an Amazon Prime member versus when it it a waste of money? For me it's a tremendous idea here in the boondocks, but it may not be the best idea for everybody.

    How necessary is your smart phone if you are paying for it on a tight budget? Bob Jensen only carries an old prepaid-time cell phone for calling out.

    "Take a look at what exactly student athletes will learn in the new personal finance course at Ole Miss," by Libby Kane, Business Insider, April 6, 2015 ---
    http://www.businessinsider.com/personal-finance-class-offered-to-student-athletes-at-ole-miss-2015-4